Data Insertion in Bitcoin's Blockchain


  • Andrew Sward Augustana College
  • Ivy Vecna Augustana College
  • Forrest Stonedahl Augustana College



Blockchain, Data Publication, Script, Transaction Malleability, OP_RETURN, Coinbase, Free Speech


This paper provides the first comprehensive survey of methods for inserting arbitrary data into Bitcoin’s blockchain. Historical methods of data insertion are described, along with lesser-known techniques that are optimized for efficiency. Insertion methods are compared on the basis of efficiency, cost, convenience of data reconstruction, permanence, and potentially negative impact on the Bitcoin ecosystem.



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How to Cite

Sward, A., Vecna, I., & Stonedahl, F. (2018). Data Insertion in Bitcoin’s Blockchain. Ledger, 3.



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